2.7 GW of electrolyzer operational capacity expected for Europe by 2025 – pv magazine International
According to two new research, Europe is on track to reach 2.7 GW of operational hydrogen electrolyzer capacity by 2025 and most of that capacity is expected to be located in Germany. In addition, three European gas associations assessed the competitiveness of different hydrogen transport options and found that it depends on the distance the hydrogen is transported, as well as the scale and end use. .
Delta-EE, an Edinburgh-based energy market research consultancy wrote that Europe is on track to reach 2.7 GW of operational hydrogen electrolyser capacity by 2025. This is mainly due to EU public support from the EU green deal and the IPCEI Hydrogen initiative. “However, time is running out to establish the many projects at the scale of the hundreds of megawatts needed to reach a European target of 6 GW by 2024,” the company said.
According to Scottish consulting firm’s new Global Hydrogen Intelligence Service, almost half of all European electrolyser capacity is in Germany, while no other country has installed more than 10 MW. “The sector is booming; the first large projects in several countries (e.g. Spain, the Netherlands, Denmark) will be at the scale of tens of megawatts in 2021/22 and will reach the hundreds [of] megawatts by 2025. A key driver of this growth will be increasing the manufacturing capacity of chlorinator manufacturers, ”the company explained, citing Nel Hydrogen, ITM Power, Cummins and McPhy, which“ are all on the move. to build factories capable of producing hundreds of megawatts, if not gigawatts of electrolysers per year.
The competitiveness of different hydrogen transport options depends on the distance over which the hydrogen is transported, as well as the scale and end use, depending on the European Network of Gas Transmission System Operators, ENTSOG; the European association of gas infrastructure managers, GIE; and Hydrogen Europe, a European association representing the interests of the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. “If the hydrogen is to be shipped overseas, it usually has to be liquefied or transported as ammonia or in liquid organic hydrogen (LOHC) carriers. For distances less than 1,500 km, transporting hydrogen in the form of gas by pipeline is generally the cheapest delivery option; above 1,500 km, shipping hydrogen in the form of ammonia or LOHC may be more profitable, ”the three European associations wrote last month in a report. They see the blend as “an easy entry point into the hydrogen economy,” defining it as a cost-effective transition option, despite the necessary modifications and related investments, especially for compressors. “Different compressor models react in different ways to hydrogen mixtures,” the report read, explaining that the investments required will also depend on the share of hydrogen. A complete switch to a 100% hydrogen pipeline will require the installation of new turbines or engines and new compressors. Capacity will then play a key role in financial considerations. “The analyzes of certain gas TSOs show that the operation of hydrogen pipes at a capacity lower than their maximum capacity gives much more attractive transport costs per megawatt hour transported, because additional, expensive and high-capacity compressor stations – and the corresponding energy consumption – can be avoided. “Methane has a calorific value three times greater than a cubic meter of hydrogen but” the same pipeline today transporting mainly natural gas, can transport about three times more cubic meters of hydrogen in a given period and thus providing roughly the same amount of energy. “Hydrogen is a much smaller molecule than methane. The tightness of the system and the material used for the seal should be chosen accordingly, explains the report. The costs of reallocating typical transmission pipelines for transportation to 100% hydrogen is expected to be between EUR 0.2 and 0.6 million per kilometer. The three associations also explained that there is currently no EU-wide technical specification for the quality of the hydrogen transported via dedicated hydrogen pipes in gaseous form. “The absence of harmonized European regulations could lead to a fragmentation of the hydrogen market”, indicate the associations in the report, also considering the final transport costs (discounted costs from € 2.30 to € 4.40 for the transport of 1 MWh over 1000 km); the centrality of Europe in current projects; hydrogen storage (in caves of salt); and the role e ports and offshore platforms.
Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are among the most competitive locations in the world to produce and export green hydrogen and its derivatives, according to German industrial initiative Dii Desert Energy and Munich-based management consulting firm Roland Berger. The cheapest solar and wind power in the world makes the GCC region potentially one of the most competitive for hydrogen production. A recent tender in Saudi Arabia was awarded for a price of $ 0.0104 / kWh. Taking advantage of the oil and gas economy, significant financing is available through sovereign wealth funds as well as international investors. In addition, the region has a proven track record in building and operating export infrastructure and has a central location for future high energy demand markets such as the European and Asian markets of East, ”the report read, adding that hydrogen valleys could also enable local hydrogen savings.
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